Physics is full of riddles, and in a sense, this is what keeps the field going. These areEncourage the race to the truth. But among all the dilemmas, I would say that two of them undoubtedly belong to the A priority.
First, when scientists look at the sky, they consistently see stars and galaxies that travel farther and farther away from our planet. The universe is like an exploding bubble, and we realized that it was expanding. But it doesn’t make sense.
There are not enough things floating around it – stars, particles, planets and everything else – to make the space swell so fast. In other words, the universe is expanding faster than our physics says, and the faster you read it. This brings us to the second problem.
According to the best calculations of experts, the galaxies revolve so fast that everything revolves around us, and we expect that the spirals will behave like uncontrollable festivities that lead metal horses astray. There is not enough in the universe to connect them. Still, the Milky Way is not far from each other.
So … what’s going on?
As a general term, physicists refer to the “missing” matter that pushes space outward as dark matter, and the parts that bind galaxies together – probably in a halo-like form – to dark matter. They do not interact with light or the matter we see, so they are essentially invisible. Dark matter and dark energy combine to make up 95% of the universe.
The authors of a recent study published in the journal Science Advances reduce the fraction of dark matter to zero and write that “it may consist of one or more basic types of particles … although some or all of them may consist of macroscopic fragments of some particles. invisible form of matter, such as black holes. “
Black holes or not, dark matter is completely impenetrable. To unravel its mysteries, scientists have selected a few suspects from the cosmic order, and one of the most sought after particles is a strange little particle called an action.
Wide-eyed speculation of stocks
You may have heard of the Standard Model, an almost sacred, ever-increasing book of particle physics. Describes how it is each subay the particle in the universe works.
However, as Science Advances notes, some “particle physicists are concerned and dissatisfied with the Standard Model because it has many theoretical shortcomings and leaves many current experimental questions unanswered.” More specifically, this leads to a paradox related to a well-established scientific concept called CPT invariance. Aha, physics puzzles continue.
Basically, the CPT invariance implies that the universe must be symmetric when C (load), P (parity) and T (time). For this reason, it is also called CPT symmetry. If everything had the opposite load, if it were with the left hand, not with the right hand, and if it travels backwards, not forward, in time, it means that the universe must remain the same.
For a long time, CPT symmetry seemed inviolable. Then came 1956.
In short, scientists have found something that violates the P part of the CPT symmetry. This is called a weak force and dictates things such as the collision of neutrinos and the combination of elements in the sun. Everyone was shocked, confused and scared.
Almost every basic concept of physics is based on CPT symmetry.
About a decade later, researchers also discovered a weak force that broke the symmetry of C. Things were falling apart. Physicists could only hope and pray that even if P is broken … and CP is broken … maybe CPT still doesn’t exist. It is possible that weak forces only need a trinity to maintain CPT symmetry. Thankfully, this theory seems correct. For unknown reasons, a weak force follows the overall CPT symmetry despite C and CP shocks. wow
But here’s the thing. If weak forces break the symmetry of the CP, you will expect strong forces, don’t you? Well, they don’t, and physicists don’t know why. This is called a strong CP problem – and where everything is interesting.
Neutrons – uncharged particles in atoms – are subject to strong forces. In addition, the neutral load, which allows for simplification, indicates that they violate the T symmetry. And “if we find something that violates the T symmetry, it must also violate the CP symmetry so that the CPT combination is not violated,” the article reads. But … it’s weird. Neutrons are not due to a strong CP problem.
Thus, the idea of action was born.
Years ago, physicists Roberto Peccei and Helen Quinn proposed adding a new dimension to the Standard Model. This involved the field of ultra-light particles – axons, which explained the problem of strong CP and thus eased the conditions for neutrons. According to the newspaper, Axions solved everything so well that the idea of the duo became “the most popular solution to the problem of strong CP.” It was a miracle.
To be clear, stocks are still hypothetical, but think about what happened. Physicists have added a new particle to the Standard Model, which describes its spots the whole universe. What does this mean for everything else?
The key to dark matter?
According to Peccei-Quinn’s theory, stocks would move “cold” or very slowly in space. And … researchers say, “existence [dark matter] draws conclusions from the effects of gravity, and astrophysical observations show that it is “cold.”
The newspaper also states that “there are experimental upper limits on how strong it is [the axion] interacts with visible matter.
Thus, the actions that mainly help to explain the problem of strong CP also have theoretical properties that are compatible with dark matter. Very Good.
The Council for European Nuclear Research, better known as CERN, which manages the Great Hadron Collider and leads antimatter research, also notes that “one of the most thought-provoking features of the campaigns is that they can be produced naturally. A large number shortly after the Big Bang. This stock population will still exist today and may constitute the dark matter of the universe. “
Come on. Axions are one of the hottest topics in physics because they explain a lot. But again, those lice are still hypothetical.
Will we ever find stocks?
It’s been 40 years since scientists started hunting for stocks.
Most of these searches “use mainly the interaction of the field of action with electromagnetic fields,” say the authors in this latest review, published in Science Advances.
For example, CERN developed the Axion Search Telescope, a machine designed to detect the signs of particles forming in the nucleus of the sun. Inside our star, there are powerful electric fields that can potentially interact with axions – if they are really there, that is.
But the search has so far faced several very big problems. First, “the mass of the particles is theoretically unpredictable,” the authors write, “meaning we have very little idea of what the action might look like.”
Nowadays, scientists are still looking for them while accepting a very wide audience. However, researchers have recently provided evidence that the particle may be between 40 and 180 microelectron volts. It is incredibly small, about 1 billionth of an electron’s mass.
“In addition,” the team writes, “the axion signal is expected to be very narrow … and the Standard Model will be extremely weak due to very weak connections with particles and fields.” In fact, even if small stocks do their best to let us know that they exist, we can lose them. Their signs can be so weak that we hardly notice.
Despite these obstacles, the axion search continues. Most scientists claim that they should be somewhere, but they look too good to be true when it comes to fully explaining dark matter.
“Most experimental attempts assume that stocks make up 100% of the dark matter halo,” the study authors point out, noting that perhaps there is a way to “look at stock physics without relying on such a hypothesis.”
Although they may be the stars of the show, what if the actions are just one chapter in the history of dark matter?